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October 6, 2001--There were no "suicide" pilots on those September 11 jets. The jets were controlled by advanced robotics and remote-control technology, not hijackers. Fantastic? Before I explain, read about the history-making robot/remote-controlled jet plane.
Global Hawk: Now You Have It ...
The Northrop Grumman Global Hawk is a robotized American military jet that has a wingspan of a Boeing 737. The excerpts below were taken from an article entitled: "Robot plane flies Pacific unmanned," which appeared in the April 24, 2001 edition of Britain's International Television News :
"The aircraft essentially flies itself, right from takeoff, right through to landing, and even taxiing off the runway," according to the Australian Global Hawk manager Rod Smith. Here is an excerpt from that article:
(See: http://www.itn.co.uk/news/20010424/world/05robotplane.shtm or http://web.archive.org/web/20010707000937/http://itn.co.uk/news/20010424/world/05robotplane.shtm or http://www.Public-Action.com/911/itn)
... And Now You Don't
Then, on September 20, 2001, The Economist published comments from a former boss of British Airways, Robert Ayling. In a section subtitled "On autopilot into the future," The Economist wrote:
So, even though the ITN article was published on April 24, in September, after the 911 crashes, Mr. Ayling is pretending Global Hawk technology is a thing of the future.
Then The New York Times ran this:
So, then, right after Operation 911 was pulled off, two men of world influence were pretending such technology had not yet been perfected. That was dishonest. And revealing.
Run a Google Advanced Search on the phrase "Global Hawk," and you will find additional information. Meanwhile, I have attached the text of the ITN article at the end of this piece.
[Note of Jan. 28, 2002: For an historical overview
of automated plane landing systems, see "Thwarting skyjackings for the
ground," by Alan Staats, posted to FACSNET, October 2, 2001, at: http://www.facsnet.org/issues/specials/terrorism/aviation.php3
America And Its Allies Would Never Attack America!
Now, hold it there! This is US military technology. We all surely know that the US and its allies would not conspire to attack America! Or do we?
The Army's School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS ) thinks Israel is capable of doing exactly that. On September 10, 2001, The Washington Times ran a front page story which quoted SAMS officers:
"Of the Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service, the SAMS officers say: 'Wildcard. Ruthless and cunning. Has capability to target US forces and make it look like a Palestinian/Arab act.'" ("US troops would enforce peace under Army study," The Washington Times , Sept.. 10, 2001, pg. A1, 9.) Just 24 hours after this story appeared, the Pentagon was hit and the Arabs were being blamed.
These SAMS officers are obviously interested in protecting their country, but not all Americans are. Some are traitors and pay allegiance to Israel. Recall the June 8, 1967, Israeli attack on the USS Liberty, and American complicity in the attack.
During the Six Day War, the Liberty, an American intelligence gathering ship, was sailing in international waters. Israeli aircraft and torpedo boats attacked it for 75 minutes. Read the story at the USS Liberty Memorial Website, at http://www.ussliberty.com/
When four US fighter jets from a nearby aircraft carrier came to protect the Liberty, President Johnson, through Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, ordered the jets NOT to come to the Liberty's aid. Johnson reported said he did not care who was killed or what happened to the ship, he just didn't want his allies embarassed.
The Israeli attack was allowed to cotinue. Thirty-fourAmericans were killed and 171 wounded, thanks to the treason of an American president and defense seretary.
Now consider Operation Northwoods: In 1962, US military leaders designed a plan to conduct terrorist acts against Americans and blame Cuba, to create popular sentiment for invasion of that country. Operation Northwoods included:
Information on Operation Northwoods can be found in James Bamford's Body of Secrets, (Doubleday, 2001), and at the following URLs.
In other words, US allies and people within the US military establishment are not opposed to killing Americans, given the right goal.
Why Take Chances?
Put yourself in the shoes of the masterminds of Operation 911. The attacks had to be tightly coordinated. Four jets took off within 15 minutes of each other at Boston, Dulles, and Newark airports, and roughly two hours later, it was over. The masterminds couldn't afford to take needless chances.
Years ago I saw a local TV news reporter interview a New York mugger about the occupational hazards of his trade. "It's a very, very dangerous trade," the mugger informed the interviewer. "Some of these people are crazy! They fight back! You can get hurt!"
If a freelance New York mugger realized the unpredictable nature of human behavior, surely the pros who pulled this job off must have known the same truth. Yet we are asked to believe that the culprits took four jet airliners, with four sets of crew and four sets of passengers -- armed with (depending on the news reports you read) "knives," "plastic knives" and box cutters. Given the crazy and unpredictable nature of humans, why would they try this bold plan when they were so poorly armed?
A lady's handbag -- given the weight of the contents most women insist on packing -- is an awesome weapon. I know, I have used mine in self defense. Are we to believe that none of the women had the testosterone to knock those flimsy little weapons out of the hijackers' hands? And what of the briefcases most men carry? Thrown, those briefcase can be potent weapons. Your ordinary every-day New York mugger would never take the chances that our culprits took.
Flight attendant Michelle Heidenberger was on board Flight 77. She had been "trained to handle a hijacking. She knew not to let anyone in the cockpit. She knew to tell the hijacker that she didn't have a key and would have to call the pilots. None of her training mattered." ( "On flight 77: 'Our Plane Is Being Hijacked'," The Washington Post, September 12, 2001, pgs. A 1, 11.)
That's right, The Washington Post for once is telling the whole truth. Heidenberger's training didn't matter, the pilots' training didn't matter, the ladies handbags didn't matter, the mens' briefcases didn't matter. The masterminds of Operation 911 knew that whatever happened aboard those flights, the control of the planes was in their hands. Even if the crew and passengers fought back, my hypothesis is that they could not have regained control of the planes, for the planes were being controlled by Global Hawk technology.
Flight 77: "The Plane Was Flown With Extraordinary Skill"
Once again: Operation 911 demanded that the attacks be tightly coordinated. Four jets took off within 15 minutes of each other at Boston, Dulles, and Newark airports, and roughly two hours later, it was over. If we are to believe the story we are being told, the masterminds needed, at an absolute minimum, pilots who could actually fly the planes and who could arrive at the right place at the right time.
American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757, took off from Dulles Airport in northern Virginia at 8:10 a.m. and crashed into the Pentagon at 9:40 a.m. The Washington Post, September 12, says this: "Aviation sources said that the plane was flown with extraordinary skill, making it highly likely that a trained pilot was at the helm, possibly one of the hijackers. Someone even knew how to turn off the transponder, a move that is considerably less than obvious."
According to the article, the air traffic controllers "had time to warn the White House that the jet was aimed directly at the president's mansion and was traveling at a gut-wrenching speed--full throttle.
"But just as the plane seemed to be on a suicide mission into the White House, the unidentified pilot executed a pivot so tight that it reminded observers of a fighter jet maneuver. The plane circled 270 degrees from the right to approach the Pentagon from the west, whereupon Flight 77 fell below radar level, vanishing from controller's screens, the sources said." ("On Flight 77: 'Our Plane Is Being Hijacked'," The Washington Post, September 12, 2001, pgs. 1 & 11)
Meet Ace Suicide Pilot Hani Hanjour
Let's look at what we know about the alleged suicide pilot of American Airlines Flight 77, Hani Hanjour. According to press reports, Hanjour had used Bowie's Maryland Freeway Airport three times since mid-August as he attempted to get permission to use one of the airport's planes. This from The Prince George's Journal [Maryland] September 18, 2001:
If you were the mastermind who planned this breathtaking terrorist attack, would you trust a man who took 600 hours of flying time and still could not do the job? Who was paying for Hanjour's lessons, and why?
Yet this is the man the FBI would have us believe flew Flight 77 into the Pentagon "with extraordinary skill." He could not even fly a Cessna 172!
Yes, maneuvering a Boeing 757 into a 270 degree turn under tense conditions (remember, the culprits were outmanned and had crude, non lethal weapons) demanded the skill of a fighter pilot. But why would those bad, bad, Muslims want to do such a thing?
By shifting the plane's position so radically, Flight 77 managed to hit the side of the Pentagon directly opposite the side on which the offices of the Secretary of Defense and Joint Chief of Staff were located. (Coincidentally, Flight 77 hit the offices of Army operations [US News and World Report, Sept. 14, 2001, pg. 25]. Recall, it was the Army that warned of the possibility that Israel's Mossad might make a terror attack against the US.) The masterminds of Operation 911 were prepared to sacrifice the rank and file, but carefully avoided touching a hair on the head of the brass.
It reminds one of Operation Northwoods, doesn't it? Remember the rank and file sailors who were to be sacrificed on a US Naval vessel in Guantanamo Bay, in order to justify war with Cuba? No, neither Hanjour nor any other Muslim suicide pilot was at the controls of this plane. It had been fitted with Global Hawk technology and was being remotely controlled.
Let's Meet The Other Aces
According to The Washington Post (September 19, 2001, "Hijack Suspects Tried Many Flight Schools," Mohammed Atta, alleged hijacker of Flight 11, and Marwanal-Al-Shehhi, alleged hijacker of Flight 175, both of which crashed into the World Trade Center, attended hundreds of hours of lessons at Huffman Aviation, a flight school in Venice, Florida. They also took lessons at Jones Aviation Flying Service Inc., which operates from the Sarasota Bradenton International Airport. According to the Post, neither experience "worked out."
Or try The Washington Post: Alleged hijackers Nawaq Alhazmi (Flight 77), Khaid Al-Midhar (Flight 77) and Hani Hanjour (Flight 77) all spent time in San Diego. "Two of the men, Alhazmi and Al-Midhar, also briefly attended a local fight school, but they were dropped because of their limited English and incompetence at the controls....
But the masterminds would not need competent pilots -- if they had Global Hawk technology.
Missing: Air Traffic Control Conversations
Now, let's look at the contemporaneous media coverage of Operation 911. Did you notice that during the event and for weeks after, we heard no excerpts from the conversations between the air traffic control centers and the pilots of the four aircraft?
Those conversations are recorded by the air traffic control centers. Surely those conversations were newsworthy. They should have been available to the media immediately. Why didn't we hear them? I believe the answer to this question is simple:
If we could hear the conversations that took place, we would hear the airline pilots telling air traffic control that the controls of their airplanes would not respond. The pilots, of course, would have no way of knowing that their craft had been fitted with Global Hawk technology programmed to take over their planes.
But no, we MUST believe the crashes were the work of Muslim terrorists. Therefore we were not permitted to hear the news as it happened. We will have to wait for the FBI/military intelligence people to cook up doctored and fictional conversations. They will then serve them to the public through the complicitous mass media and strategically placed "investigative reporters," and we will be asked to swallow them. Many of us will. (See The Christian Science Monitor story discussed below, "Communication With Flight 11.")
That the airlines cooperated and did whatever the FBI told them to do is no secret. The Washington Post of September 12, 2001, says this: "Details about who was on Flight 77, when it took off and what happened on board were tightly held by airline, airport and security officials last night. All said that the FBI had asked them not to divulge details."
Think back to Operation Northwoods in which the Pentagon considered reporting a bogus passenger airplane being shot down by a non-existent Cuban fighter jet. The Pentagon was obviously confident that some airline would go along with the deception. Not surprising, considering many commercial airline pilots and executives are former military pilots, and the government controls the airline industry in many ways. These pilots and executives were trained to do as they are told, and would be out of a job if they broke the rules.
[Note of Jan 28, 2002: Some time after this article was published, this author concluded the Operation Northwoods documents are counterfeit. That is, they were produced by the Pentagon, as claimed by James Bamford in "Body of Secrets". See: "Operation Northwoods: The Counterfeit."]
Why would the take-off time and the passenger list be held secret? The passengers, crew, and culprits were all dead. The relatives must have known that when they heard the news of the crashes. Flight departure and arrival times had been public knowledge. The masterminds knew the details of their own plans.
No, it was the PUBLIC that was being denied information, and the significant information being denied was the conversations between the air traffic controllers and the pilots. Recall that during the Vietnam War, the US "secretly" bombed Cambodia. The bombing was no secret to the Cambodians. It was only a secret from the American public, who were paying for the war and may have objected to the slaughter. And that's the only purpose of the Operation 911 secrecy: To keep the information from the public.
Communication With Flight 11
American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767, left Boston at 7:59 a.m. on its way to Los Angeles. It was allegedly piloted by Mohamed Atta, one of the pilots who couldn't fly, discussed above. Flight 11 crashed into the north tower of the WTC at 8:45 a.m.
Sorry, this report is not credible. Airplanes are tracked constantly. The skies over the US are far too busy for us to have a lackadaisical attitude.
Note the date of The Washington Post story: September 12. Now compare it to the very different story that appeared a day later, in The Christian Science Monitor:
The story goes on to say that the conversations were overheard by the controllers because the pilot had pushed a "push-to-talk" button. "When he [the pilot] pushed the button and the terrorist spoke, we knew. There was this voice that was threatening the pilot, and it was clearly threatening. During these transmissions, the pilot's voice and the heavily accented voice of a hijacker were clearly audible ...."
There are some logical problems with this account, of course, not the least of which is that a) we are told the pilot's voice was seldom heard, b) it was not possible to tell which pilot was at the controls, and c) during the transmissions the pilot's voice was clearly audible.
This accounting is spook talk. Let's get to the heart:
So, yes, the same "federal law-enforcement" machinery that cooked up the David Koresh negotiation tapes and arranged to destroy the evidence at the Mt. Carmel Center in the April 19 inferno will be handling these records, too.
The Washington Post reported a similar story for United Airlines Flight 175, which crashed into the south tower of the World Trade Center tower at 9:06 a.m.
Once again, there was no contemporaneous, detailed, first hand information from the air traffic controllers about communication from the air traffic controllers.
Of course the controls would not respond to manual directions if they were under the control of Global Hawk.
Flight 11/Flight 175 Hijacker Passport Found
We have just mentioned the distinct possibility that the masterminds of Operation 911 will manufacture evidence. Well, here is a CNN story for your consideration:
We are asked to believe that one of the hijackers brought his passport with him on a domestic fight, even though he knew he would not need it then, or ever again; that upon impact the passport flew from the hijacker's pocket (or was he holding it in his hands?), that the passport flew out of the aircraft, that it flew out of the burning tower, and that it was carried by the air currents and landed safely, where it could be discovered, several blocks away ...
Lawd, WHO WRITES THIS STUFF?
United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757, was scheduled to leave Newark Airport at 8:01 a.m. for San Francisco. We are told it crashed into an abandoned coal mine near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:37 a.m., one hour and 50 minutes after the first World Trade Center tower was hit.
Without a doubt, Flight 93 was shot down. The first TV network reports said exactly that: Flight 93 had been shot down by a military jet. That information even made it into the print media.
On September 11, "[r]esidents and workers at businesses outside Shanksville, Somerset County, reported discovering clothing, books, papers, and what appear to be human remains. Some residents said they collected bags-full of items to be turned over to investigators. Others reported what appeared to be crash debris floating in Indian Lake, nearly six miles from the crash site." ("Investigators locate 'black box' from Flight 93; widen search area in Somerset crash," [Pittsburgh] Post Gazette, September 13, 2001.) http://www.post-gazette.com/headlines/20010913somersetp3.asp cached at http://www.public-action.com/911/postgazette-09-13-01/index.html
The Washington Post reported that, just as Congressional leaders were discussing shooting the plane down, they learned it had crashed. ("Jetliner Was Diverted Toward Washington Before Crash in Pa," Sept. 12, 2001, pg. A10.) The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the FBI denied that the plane had been shot down.
The FBI blamed the spread of debris over an 8-mile area on a 10 mph wind that was blowing at the time. Of the debris, TIME Magazine of September 11 says: "The largest pieces of the plane still extant are barely bigger than a telephone book." (Pages in this edition are not numbered: this quote appears on what should be pg. 40).
Planes that crash do not disintegrate in this manner. However, the assertion that the hijackers had a bomb on board, and the bomb exploded, might provide an explanation for the disintegration.
There is a problem with this story, however: Hijackers who planned to crash the plane into the Capitol would not want, or need, a bomb. In fact, a bomb might be counterproductive: Suppose it went off before the plane hit the Capitol? The mission would be ruined. Bringing a bomb on board would greatly increase chances the hijacker who carried the bomb would be detected when boarding. And it's hard to imagine why hijackers would mutilate and dismember passengers with plastic knives and box cutters when they were planning to blow them up, anyway. No, the bomb story does not wash. You can read one such story at: http://www.msnbc.com/news/632626.asp cached at http://www.public-action.com/911/msnbc-09-22-01/index.html
More Missing Air Traffic Control Conversations
"That marks the point at which the plane must have been hijacked, investigators say. Then it took a turn east."
Note that the investigators used the phrase "must have been" hijacked. Didn't they know? Weren't the air traffic controllers in touch with the pilots? But the direction changes with the next paragraph:
Now THAT conversation must have been interesting! You can imagine the response of the air traffic controller: "Excuse me? Flight 93, you're in the middle of a scheduled trip to San Francisco, but you're just changed your mind and want to spend the day in Washington? Please explain."
According to an MSNBC story of September 22, 2001, Flight 93 was late taking off, and did not make its way down the runway until 8:41 a.m. ("The Final Moments of Flight 93" http://www.msnbc.com/news/632626.asp cached at http://www.public-action.com/911/msnbc-09-22-01/index.html
It was aloft for almost two hours, crashing at 10:37 a.m. Making a rough estimate from the distances traveled and the time in the air (see TIME Magazine, September 11, "The Paths of Destruction" ), Flight 93 went off course sometime between 9:45 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Recall that both towers had been hit by 9:06 a.m., and the New York airports had been closed since 9:17 a.m. It would have been impossible for an air traffic controller on duty between 9:45--10:00 a.m. not to know that commercial air traffic in the US was in a dire emergency from "suicide planes."
And now Flight 93 calls in, asking permission to do a U-turn, fly east an hour and a half, and land in Washington DC ??? What, the pilot was nervous and didn't know there were airports in the midwest?
I'd love to hear the REAL conversation between Flight 93 and the air traffic controllers, wouldn't you? But I think we'll have to wait a while ...
Come to think of it, why would a hijacker call in to ask for an OK to change directions?
Conflicting And Unbelievable Reports
The networks dropped the story that Flight 93 had been shot down and now said that Flight 93 passengers called their families and described a hijacking. The hijackers were armed with box razors, and overwhelmed the passengers and crew, and told the passengers they planned to crash into the Capitol in Washington, DC. The hijackers also mutilated and dismembered the passengers, presumably with their plastic knives and box cutters. What a messy job that must have been! We were not told if the hijackers chatted to the passengers about their plans before, after, or while they were committing the mutilation/dismemberment. (I heard the mutilation/dismemberment story once while watching network TV coverage. Then the story was dropped.)
On the other hand, TIME Magazine reported that one of the passengers called home to say: "We have been hijacked. They are being kind." (TIME, Sept. 24, pg. 73.)
Are we believing this? I'm not.
No. Something went wrong with the masterminds' plan. They could not afford to have Flight 93 make a conventional landing and allow the pilots and passengers to talk about their experience. They could not afford to have the "hijackers" survive and the electronic controls of the plane examined. So Flight 93 was shot down.
Who Were Those People, Anyway?
Before September 11, the combined forces of US military and domestic intelligence -- the CIA, the FBI, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency -- were clueless that such a catastrophic event would occur. Yet a day or so later, the FBI had secured the names and mugshots of each of the 19 hijackers. How did the FBI know who the hijackers were? After all, all the eyewitnesses are dead. How could the FBI distinguish between "regular" Muslims and hijacker Muslims on those flights? Or did they just go through the passenger lists culling out the Muslim-sounding names and labeling the people bearing those names as hijackers? "You're Muslim so you're a hijacker..."
On September 30 I looked at the passenger lists of those four flights. To my surprise, the lists contained none of the hijackers' names. Here are the URLs I checked:
Then I went searching on Usenet for more information. I found that <AFJS@webtv.net> had noticed the hijackers' names were not on the passenger lists on September 27, on alt.culture.alaska, "Re: BLACK BOXES AND BODIES -(2). " I don't know what you'll find when you look at the passenger lists, but the historical record is there.
The FBI may be lying, of course, and the airlines telling the
truth: Perhaps none of the "hijackers" were passengers on those four
planes. If that is true, the airlines are helping the FBI commit a most
grievous fraud on the public. What does that say for the airlines'
integrity? In either case, we can place little confidence in the
veracity of the information in those lists. Names could have been
added just as easily as deleted.
NOTE: As late as February 3, 2002, United Airlines
displayed on its website a copy of its September 12, 2001 press release,
issued days before the alleged hijackers were "identified." The press
release listed all the passengers on Flights 175 and 93 on September, 11,
2001. The names of the alleged hijackers did not appear -- and
United Airlines could not have removed them, for the "hijackers" had not
yet been "identified." So, clearly, none of the "highjackers" were
aboard those two flights.
Don't Take The Credit, Take The Blame
By now you've realized that it's OK to believe in conspiracies provided they are Muslim conspiracies. In fact, we MUST believe that a man who dresses in sheets lives in a tent or a cave in the middle of nowhere - Osama bin Laden -- was the mastermind. He used his $300 million fortune to pull off Operation 911. Come to think of it, how do we know the size of his fortune? Does the FBI know his banker? And given that the world's banking system is highly centralized and in the hands of Mr. bin Laden's avowed enemies, how could our terrorist tent-dweller have retained his fortune all these years? If Mr. bin Laden could have pulled this off in New York, why didn't he pick on his more direct enemy, Israel, and do a 911 on them?
Brilliant as Mr. bin Laden is, he forgot to take credit for the
attack. Even worse, he forgot to issue any demands. He allowed
his operatives to use their Muslim names and leave a clear trail for the
FBI to follow. Mr. Atta, the pilot of Flight 11 (north World Trade
Center), was particularly helpful. He kindly left his car at the
Boston Airport. Luckily, an unnamed source drew the FBI's attention
to this car. According to radio reports, the FBI found a
suicide note written in Arabic and a copy of the Koran in the car.
Mr. Atta liked to write in Arabic; he wrote a second, long document in
that language, which, for some reason, he put in his luggage.
Coincidentally, this luggage did not make it to Flight 11, so the FBI
found it at the airport. Another lucky break! But why Mr. Atta
would take luggage on a suicide mission has not been explained. The
same note was carried by one of the hijackers on Flight 93, and, Mother of
Miracles! survived the crash, even though the airplane itself was torn
into shards. Everything was so amazing that Bob Woodward, the man
who talks to the dead, was called in to write a story about it all. See
"In Hijacker's Bags. A Call to Planning, Prayer, and Death," The
Washington Post, September 28, 2001. Formerly at:
Read Mr. Woodward's article. Mr. Atta sounds like a Jewish lawyer with his wires crossed, exhorting his co-conspirators to remember their wills and reminding them that Mohammed was an "optimist;" exhorting his fellows to "utilize" (ugh--there's a lawyer's word for you -- what's Arabic for "utilize"?) their few hours left to ask God's forgiveness. God's forgiveness for what? They were about to die Muslim heros, Muslim martyrs in Allah's holy cause ... what need would Allah have to forgive them?
Sure, we believe every word. We swallow the whole story.
On the other hand, here is the International Television News article on the Global Hawk:
Robot plane flies Pacific unmanned http://www.itn.co.uk/news/20010424/world/05robotplane.shtm or http://web.archive.org/web/20010707000937/http://itn.co.uk/news/20010424/world/05robotplane.shtm or http://www.Public-Action.com/911/itn
(ITN Entertainment April 24, 2001) --- "The aircraft essentially flies itself, right from take-off, right through to landing, and even taxiing off the runway." - Australian Global Hawk manager Rod Smith.
[Note of August 12, 2002] Supporting News Story: "Amid crashes and hype, military shows off latest robot plane" -- Associated Press, July 11, 2002.
That Associated Press article states that since 9-11 there has been an enormous interest in robot planes ...
That article is a testimonial to the effectiveness of Public-Action's articles on the use of remote controlled planes on 9-11.
But AP is covering for the military when it it pretends that remote control technology is in its infancy.
"In fact, NORAD (the North American Air Defense Command) had at its disposal a number of U.S. Air Force General Dynamics F-106 Delta Dart fighter aircraft configured to be remotely flown into combat as early as 1959 under the auspices of a program know as SAGE. These aircraft could be started, taxied, taken off, flown into combat, fight, and return to a landing entirely by remote control, with the only human intervention needed being to fuel and re-arm them."
[The article was revised on September 28, 2004. Notes added as indicated.]
All original works copyright 1996-2004 Carol A.
See the handiwork of the world's leading terrorist
organization, the FBI: